Akoya pearls are bead nucleated cultured pearls, produced in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii and Pinctada fucata chemnitzi. Japan was the first country to perfect the technique of culturing Akoya pearls in the early 20th century, as a result of painstaking research undertaken by Kokichi Mikimoto, and by the year 1935, Japan had 350 pearl farms producing 10 million cultured pearls annually. Subsequently other countries in the region, such as China, Australia, Vietnam and Korea also followed suit, adopting the Japanese techniques and using the same species or closely related species of the saltwater pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii. In recent years, the Chinese seem to have overtaken the Japanese in Akoya pearl production. Chinese began culturing Akoya pearls only in the 1960s, but had only limited success. Only in the late 1980s the Chinese achieved tremendous success in culturing Akoya pearls. Chinese Akoya pearls that were previously considered to be sub standard, are now of excellent quality, and rival that of the Japanese in every quality factor. As a result of the tough Chinese competition, many Japanese pearl farmers are now concentrating on the production of larger Akoya pearls, greater than 8 mm in size. They import their requirements of smaller akoya pearls 2 7 mm in size, directly from China, which are then treated and strung in Japan, and still be marketed as a product of Japan. Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel, was a pioneering French fashion designer who became the undisputed queen of haute couture in the 20th century, radically changing the attitude of women around the world towards their mode of dressing, freeing them from the tight corsets of the period that restricted their movement, and introducing casual, practical clothing appropriate for the occasion, consisting of loose fitting, simple and comfortable garments, that borrowed fabrics and attitudes from men's fashion. Chanel's revolutionary career coincided with the period of modernism, when phenomenal changes were taking place in the field of design, art, literature and music.